He is the only person to have a geometrical shape, an almost perfect equilateral triangle. (Neuteboom, 2012) Again, the selection of this particular scene to paint is considered an innovation in itself
With the able assistance of David Alan Brown, it is safe to assume that the apostle with the raised index finger is Thomas (the doubting Thomas), while the figure with his hands clutched to his chest is often seen as being Bartholomew. The seated apostle with outstretched arms directly to the left of Jesus could be James the Greater, due to "sufficient biblical evidence for seating James the Greater in the immediate vicinity of Jesus and within the intimate company of Peter and John" (Brown, 236)
In biblical terms, the Last Supper was a rather emotional occasion, due to the apostles being shocked to hear Jesus tell them that one of them would betray him to the Roman authorities. For Leonardo, this emotionally-charged scenario presented him with the opportunity to portray in art "an explosive and dramatic scene and to delve more deeply than he had ever done before into the psychological makeup of his various characters" (Heydenreich, 87)
In addition, the space between Jesus and his disciples on either side of his body tends to isolate him from the others at the table, while Jesus' serene, if not almost expressionless face, sets him firmly apart from his disciples as a divine being. Notice also the rectangular window behind Jesus' head and upper torso which symbolically "endows his presence at the supper table with a spiritual and cosmic essence, full of grace, dignity and divinity as the Son of God" (Ladwein, 184)
As Vito Zani points out, true fresco painting "is an orderly process with the activities of every day reserved for a single section that had been established earlier" (214). Since fresco painting involves pigment mixed with water and then applied to wet plaster, both must dry together and fuse permanently which is something Leonardo failed to do because of his penchant for an oil mixture which allowed him to "attain atmospheric effects and veiled, sensuous surfaces" with other works like the Mona Lisa (Zani, 215)
Vinci's talents also included mathematics that could not last for long. In 1481, he created his well-known paintings known as "Adoration of the Magi" and "The Last Supper" (Dominiczak 2012, Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008)
His inventions and discoveries are known to be remarkable as they have played a vital role in the development of society. Leonardo da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452 in Italy (Rosenberg 2002, Veltman 2008, Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008)
This painting illustrates the story from the Bible and is also providing a chance to its audience to view this piece of art in the town of Wieliczka in Poland. This replica is hand carved into the stone wall unlike the original painting on the wall of a church (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Dominiczak 2012)
Painters before Leonardo ensure that Judas was different to the rest of the Apostles and often by placing him alone on the side of the table or by making him the one without the halo. Leonardo places him together with the rest and none of his fingers have a halo (Veltman 2008, Rosenberg 2002, Dominiczak 2012, Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008)
The painting was done in oil, which was relatively new to Italy at the time, showing that da Vinci was an innovator. Of interest is the recent revelation that the original painting was done without the ermine, and that the current version with the animal is basically an edit or a second version of the painting, painted over the original (Bloom, 2014)
Also of note is the way that the background space blends into wilderness in the background. All of these elements were considered to be different at the time, and revolutionary (Scaillierez, 2015)
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